Journals papers

  • G. Heisenberg (2023): Utilizing the Framework of Construal Level Theory: An Empirical Study on the Connection between Psychological Distance and Individuals' Willingness to Pay., PsyArXiv Preprint,, Supplemental materials for preprint: Retrieved from
  • G. Heisenberg (2022): Assessment of affective valence and intensity when interpreting nonverbal emotional expressive behaviour, PsyArXiv Preprint,
  • G. Heisenberg, T. Schlüter, S. Fleckenstein (2021): Process Mining - Erfolgsmodell Data Analytics. In BankPraktiker - Rechtsicher Revisionsfest Risikogerecht, Finanz Coloquium Heidelberg (FCH Gruppe), BP 4/2021, S. 102-112, ISSN 1861-4884 (download)
  • G. Heisenberg, M. Esser (2020): Einsatz von Convolutional Neural Networks zur Vorhersage der Popularität eines Instagram-Postings am Beispiel der Marke Mercedes Benz In Swiss Insights Report 2020, S. 15-17, ISSN 2297-1718, 2020 (download)
  • M. Bonart, A. Samokhina, G. Heisenberg, P. Schaer (2019): An Investigation of Biases in Web Search Engine Query Suggestions, In Journal of Online Information Review, 2019
  • C. Zabel, G. Heisenberg (2019): Just another Media Cluster ? Einflussfaktoren der Agglomeration von Virtual- und Augmented Reality Unternehmen in Nordrhein-Westfalen, In: Medienwirtschaft, Nr.2, S. 22-31
  • C. Zabel, G. Heisenberg (2018): Die nächste Medien-Evolutionsstufe. Ergebnisse der ersten Grunderhebung zur Virtual- und Augmented-Reality-Branche in NRW, In: promedia, 23.JG, 6, S. 49-50
  • G. Heisenberg, Y.A. Rezaei, T. Rothdeutsch, W. Heiden (2016): Arm prosthesis simulation on a virtual reality L-shaped workbench display system using a brain computer interface, In the Journal of Pain Management, Lena Pareto, Paul M Sharkey & Joav Merrick (Eds); J Pain Manage 2016; 9(3):205-214, ISSN: 1939-5914, 2016
  • G. Goebbels, M. Göbel, A. Hinkenjann, W. Heiden, M. Winzker, R. Herpers, R. Scholl, D. Reinert (2011): Institute of Visual Computing - Bonn-Rhine-Sieg University of Applied Sciences, Germany, In the Journal on 3D Interactive Systems (SBC), Special Issue – VR and HCI Labs, 2011
  • G. Goebbels, V.Lalioti, M.Göbel (2000): On Collaboration in Distributed Virtual Environments, In the Journal of Three Dimensional Images, 14(4), 12, pp. 42-47, Japan, 2000
  • T. Eickermann, W.Frings, F. Hossfeld, S.Posse, G.Goebbels (2000): Global Broadcast - Supercomputer-enhanced functional MRI of the Human Brain, In the Journal IEEE Concurrency, 8(1), pp. 11-13, Jan-March, 2000
  • S. Posse, T.Graf, W.Frings, K.Mathiak, S.Wiese, S.Goebels, H.Zilken, G.Goebbels, V.Kiselev, B.Elghahwagi, T.Eickermann, D. Gembris (1999): Functional Imaging in REal time (FIRE) on a Clinical Whole Body Scanner, In the Journal NeuroImage, Arthur W. Toga and Richard S.J. Frackowiak and John C. azziotta(Eds.), 9(6) part 2, 1999
  • W. Frings, D.Gembris, G.Goebbels (1999): Beim Denken zuschauen - Analyse und 3D-Anzeige von Kernresonanz-Bildern in Echtzeit im Gigabit-Testbed West, In the Journal DFN-Mitteilungen 49-3/1999, pp. 9-11, 1999

Peer-reviewed conference papers

  • R.K. Pranti, G. Heisenberg, S. Wöhrle (2024): Comparison of Missing Data Imputation Techniques using Autoencoders, In Proceedings of the 2023 and 2024 VIMS Conference workshops of the research focus Networked Intelligent Infrastructures and Mobile Systems (VIMS), Editors: Tobias Krawutschke, Beate Rhein, René Wörzberger, (2024).
  • G. Heisenberg, R. I. Rocha Lima Filho, S. Wöhrle (2023): Analysing food insecurity influencing factors in Sub-Saharan African countries - A mixture of Cluster Analysis and Cross-Sectional Panel Data, In Proceedings of 2023 Africa Meeting of the Econometric Society (AFES 2023) hosted by The African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), Nairobi, Kenya, June 1-3, 2023
  • S. Wöhrle, G. Heisenberg, and R. I. Rocha Lima Filho (2022): Predicting household water supply using satellite imagery and deep learning, In Proc. SPIE 12262, Remote Sensing for Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Hydrology XXIV, 122620Q (28 October 2022), Berlin, Germany;
  • R. Rocha Lima Filho, G. Heisenberg, R. Wirtz, L. Koeritz, L. Caspersen, S. Wöhrle (2021): PREFECT – Development and Evaluation of a prediction model for the probability of famine catastrophes using data analytics techniques, In Proceedings of 2021 MIT SCALE Latin American Conference, MIT, Cambridge, MA, U.S., 2021
  • G. Heisenberg, L. Caspersen, S. Wöhrle, R. Ivo da Rocha Lima Filho (2020): Deep learning approach for the prediction of food insecurity, In Proceedings of 4th International Conference on Global Food Security, December 2020, Montpellier, France
  • G. Heisenberg, L. Caspersen, S. Wöhrle, R. Ivo da Rocha Lima Filho (2019): Combining socio-economic and remote sensing data for food insecurity prediction using neural networks, In Proceedings of German-Brazilian Symposium on Sustainable Development, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany
  • C. Zabel, G. Heisenberg (2018): Evolution of Media Clusters: The Virtual and Augmented Reality Ecosystem in North-Rhine-Westphalia/Germany, In Proceedings of 13th World Media Economics and Management Conference 2018, Cape Town, South Africa, 6-9 May 2018
  • G. Heisenberg, M. Ketter, K. Heller, M. Erkelenz (2016): Evaluation of the accuracy of human interpretation of nonverbal-emotional expressive behavior, In Proceedings of the 12th International NeuroPsychoEconomics Conference, p.31, Bonn, Germany, 2-3 June 2016
  • G. Heisenberg, M. Ketter, C. Knauf, A. Kowalski (2015): Analysis of the influence of TV program environments on the arousal effect of subsequent commercials, In Proceedings of the 11th International NeuroPsychoEconomics Conference, p. 13, Copenhagen, Denmark, 17-19 June 2015
  • G. Heisenberg, Y.A. Rezaei, T. Rothdeutsch, W. Heiden (2014): Arm prosthesis simulation on a virtual reality L-shaped workbench display system using a brain computer interface, In Proceedings of the 10th Intl Conf. on Disability, Virtual Reality and Assoc. Technologies, PM Sharkey, L Pareto, J Broeren, M Rydmark (Eds), pp. 109-117, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2-4 Sept. 2014
  • Y. A. Rezaei, G. Heisenberg, W. Heiden (2014): User Interface Design for Disabled People under the Influencing factors of Time, Costs and Efficiency, In Proceedings of the HCI International, International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, 22-27 June 2014
  • G. Heisenberg, R.K. Natarajan, Y. A. Rezaei, N. Simon, W. Heiden (2012): Robust EEG time series transient detection with a momentary frequency estimator for the indication of an emotional change, In Proceedings of the 35th German Conference on Artificial Intelligence (KI 2012), Saarbrücken, Germany, 24-27 Sept. 2012
  • U. Rothenburg, U. Völlinger, B. Beckmann-Dobrev, A. Figge, G. Goebbels (2010): Validation of accuracy simulating flexible, one-dimensional objects, In Proceedings of the Virtual Reality International Conference (VRIC 2010), 7-9 April, Laval, France, 2010
  • C. Wienss, S. Müller, J. Hedrich, G. Goebbels, M. Göbel, I. Nikitin, N. Hornung (2008): Materialparameter zur Kabelsimulation in VR, In Proceedings of the 5. Workshop Virtuelle und Erweiterte Realität (GI), Magdeburg, Germany, 2008
  • C. Wienss, J. Scharping, G. Goebbels, I. Nikitin, N. Hornung, S. Mueller, M. Göbel (2008): Complex Cable Bundle Simulation and Validation in VR, In Proceedings of the European Symposium on Computer Modeling and Simulation (EDAS), Liverpool, United Kingdom, 2008
  • C. Wienss, G. Goebbels (2008): Kabel- und Schlauchsimulation in der Produktentstehung, In Proceedings of the Heinz Nixdorf Workshop Augmented & Virtual Reality in der Produktentstehung, Paderborn, Germany, 2008
  • G. Goebbels, M. Göbel, T. Hambürger, N. Hornung, U. Klein, I. Nikitin, O. Rattay, J. Scharping, K. Troche, C. Wienss (2007): Real-time dynamics simulation of cables, hoses and wiring harnesses for high accuracy digital mockups and load analysis, In Proceedings of the Automotive Power Electronics - Salons de l'Aveyron (APE), Paris, France, 2007
  • O. Rattay, Ch. Geiger, J. Herder, G. Goebbels, I. Nikitin (2007): Zweihändige Interaktion in VR Umgebungen, In Proceedings of the Heinz Nixdorf Workshop Augmented & Virtual Reality in der Produktionstechnik, Paderborn, Germany, 2007
  • Florian Mannuß, André Hinkenjann, Gernot Goebbels, Martin Göbel (2007): Simulation of Flexible Tubes in VR, In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Visual Computing, pp.130-136, Nevada, California, USA, 2007
  • C. Wienss, G. Goebbels, I. Nikitin, S. Mueller, K. Troche, M. Göbel, L. Nikitina (2006): Sceptre - An Infrared Laser Tracking System for Virtual Environments, ACM, In Proceedings of the ACM Symposium Virtual Reality Software and Technology, Limassol, Cyprus, pp. 45-50, 2006
  • E. Kruijff, G. Wesche, K. Riege, G. Goeb,els, M. Kunstman, D. Schmalstieg (2006): Tactylus, a pen-input device exploring audiotactile sensory binding, In Proceedings of the ACM Symposium Virtual Reality Software and Technology, pp. 312-315, Limassol, Cyprus, 2006
  • N. Hornung, I. Nikitin, G. Goebbels, U. Klein, S. Müller, C. Wienss (2006): fleXengine: Highly Accurate Real-Time Simulation System for Cables, Hoses and Wiring Harnesses with Contacts, In Proceedings of the International Wire and Cable Symposium (IWCS), Inc. Providence, Rhode Island, USA, 2006
  • C. Wienss, G. Goebbels, I. Nikitin, S. Mueller (2005): Echtzeit-Deformation und Kollisionserkennung zur virtuellen Operationssimulation, In Proceedings of the 2. Workshop Virtuelle und Erweiterte Realität, GI, Aachen, Germany, 2005
  • G. Goebbels, K.Troche, M.Braun, A. Ivanovic, A.Grab, K.von Lübtow, R.Sader, F.Zeilhofer, K.Albrecht, K.Praxmarer (2003): ARSyS-Tricorder - Entwicklung eines Augmented Reality Systems für die intraoperative Navigation in der MKG Chirurgie, In Proceedings of the Zweite Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Computer- und Roboterassistierte Chirurgie, CURAC 2003., 4. - 7. November 2003, Nürnberg, Germany, 2003
  • G. Goebbels, V. Lalioti, M. Göbel (2003): Design and evaluation of team work in distributed collaborative virtual environments, In Proceedings of the ACM Symposium Virtual Reality Software and Technology, pp. 231-238, Osaka, Japan, 2003
  • G. Goebbels, E. Kruijff, G. Galunic, T.Orthey, A.Ivanovic, L.Sanfilippo (2003): OfuturO - Mixed Reality Desk Environment for Supporting Creativity Methods, In Proceedings of 6th SBC Symposium on Virtual Reality, Riberão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil, 2003
  • G. Goebbels, K. Troche, M. Braun, A. Ivanovic, A. Grab, K. von Löbtow, H. F. Zeilhofer, R. Sader, F. Thieringer, K. Albrecht, K.Praxmarer, E. Keeve, N. Hanssen, Z. Krol, and F. Hasenbrink (2002): Development of an augmented reality system for intra-operative navigation in maxillo-facial surgery, In Proceedings of the BMBF Statustagung, pp.237 – 246, Stuttgart, Germany, 2002
  • I. Nikitin, L. Nikitina, P. Frolov, G. Goebbels, M. Göbel, S. Klimenko, G.M. Nielson (2002): Real-time simulation of elastic objects in virtual environments using finite element methods and precomputed Green's functions, In Proceedings of the ACM International Conference Series, Vol. 23, Session: Simulation and preferences, pp. 47-51, Barcelona, Spain, 2002
  • G. Goebbels, V. Lalioti, Th. Mack (2001): Guided Design and Evaluation of Distributed, Collaborative 3D Interaction in Projection Based Virtual Environments, In Proceedings of the HCI International, 9th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Usability Evaluation and Interface Design: Cognitive Engineering, Intelligent Agents and Virtual Reality, 2002
  • G.Goebbels, V.Lalioti (2001): Co-presence & Co-working in Distributed Collaborative Virtual Environments, In Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH, 1st International Conference on Virtual Reality, Computer Graphics and Visualisation, pp.109-114, Cape Town, South Africa, 2001
  • P.Th.Aquino Jr., G.Goebbels, T.G.Kirner, V.Lalioti, M.Göbel (2001): Colaboração em Ambientes Virtuais Distribuídos com Dispositivos de Imersã, In Proceedings of the 4th SBC Symposium on Virtual Reality, pp.148-159, Florianópolis, Brazil, 2001
  • G.Goebbels, P.Th.Aquino, M.Göbel, V.Lalioti (2000): Supporting Team Work in Collaborative Virtual Environment, In Proceedings of the ICAT 2000 - The Tenth International Conference on Artificial Reality and Tele-existence, pp.42-47, National Taiwan University, October 25-27, Taipei, Taiwan, 2000
  • G.Goebbels, V.Lalioti, M.Göbel (2000): On Collaboration in Distributed Virtual Environment, In Proceedings of the HC-2000 - Third International Conference on Human and Computer, September 6-9, Aizu, Japan, 2000
  • X.Yang, G.Goebbels (2000): Distributed Medical Teaching through Responsive Workbench and Cyberstag, In Proceedings of the ICIG2000, First International Conference on Image and Graphic Technology toward 21 Century and Beyond, Tianjin, China, 2000
  • G.Goebbels, N.Fournier, M.Göbel, H.Zilken, W.Frings, T.Eickermann, S.Posse (1999): Remote Visualization of Radiological Data on a Responsive Workbenc, In Proceedings of the CARS '99, Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery, pp. 326-330, Paris, France, 1999
  • T.Eickermann, W.Frings, S.Posse, G.Goebbels, R.Völpel (1999): Distributed Applications in a German Gigabit WAN (Wide Area Network, In Proceedings of the Eighth IEEE International Symposium on High Performance Distributed Computing HPDC'99, pp.143-148, California, USA, 1999
  • G.Goebbels, C.Kirner (1999): RESE - Remote Education System using a coupled CAVE/Workbench/Monitor environmen, In Pr,eedings of the 5th German-Brazilian Workshop on Information Technology, Königswinter, Germany, 1999


  • G. Heisenberg, C. Zabel, V. Telkmann (2021): Cross Reality (XR) in Deutschland - Struktur, Potenziale und Bedarfe der deutschen Virtual Reality-, Augmented Reality- und Mixed Reality-Branche, Nomos Verlag, 2021, 146 Seiten, broschiert ISBN: 978-3-8487-8135-5
  • G. Heisenberg, T. Hees (2019): Text Mining-Verfahren zur Analyse offener Antworten in Online-Befragungen im Bereich der Markt- und Medienforschung, In (Intelligentes) Text Mining in der Marktforschung, Stützer, C. M., Wachenfeld-Schell, A., & Oglesby, S. (Editors). DGOF-Kompendium der Online-Forschung, Band 1, Köln, 2019, ISBN: 978-3-9815106-8-3
  • G. Heisenberg, S. Jauernig, M. Selbst, S. Wiegand (2017): Social Media im Versicherungswesen, Verlag Versicherungswirtschaft, 2017
  • G. Goebbels, M.Göbel, F.Hasenbrink, V.Lalioti (1998): Virtuelle Arbeitsumgebungen für den medizinischen Einsatz, In Tele- und computergestützte Chirurgie, P. Schlag (ed.), Springer Verlag, 1998
  • R. Vandenhouten, G.Goebbels, M.Rasche, H.Tegtmeier, R.Grebe (1996): SANTIS (Signal ANalysis and TIme Series processing) - ein Werkzeug zur Analyse von Biosignalen, In Biomedizinische Technik, Band 41, Ergänzungsband 1, Schiele & Schön, pp.364-365, Zurich, Switzerland, 1996


  • G. Heisenberg, C. Zabel, D. O'Brien: Extended / Cross Reality (XR) in Deutschland 2022: Metaverse, digitale Ökosysteme & Entwicklung der XR-Branche (download deut. Version)
    (download engl. Version)
  • G. Heisenberg, C. Zabel, V. Telkmann: Cross Reality in Deutschland 2021: Entwicklung der Branchen und Netzwerkstrukturen der XR-Unternehmen in Deutschland (download)
  • G. Heisenberg, C. Zabel, V. Telkmann: Cross Reality in Deutschland 2020: Struktur, Potenziale und Bedarfe der deutschen XR-Branche (download)
  • G. Heisenberg, C. Zabel, V. Telkmann: XR in NRW 2019: Potenziale und Bedarfe der nordrhein-westfälischen Virtual, Mixed und Augmented Reality-Branche (download)
  • G. Heisenberg, C. Zabel, V. Telkmann: Virtual-, Mixed- & Augmented Reality in NRW 2018: Potenziale und Bedarfe der nordrhein-westfälischen VR-, MR-, AR-Branche (download)


  • G. Heisenberg (2019, 08.05.): Data Analytics in der Marktforschung: Terminologie und Konzepte Auf
  • G. Heisenberg (2019, 06.06): Process Mining – automatisierte Prozessanalysen für kontinuierliche Transparenz Auf